Back in 1965 Bruce Tuckman proposed a model for group and team development which is still widely referenced today. Many of my programs, and support for teams, are developed with this model in mind. I've also seen it play out whether I am working with a team in North America, or Europe, or Africa.
There are five stages in Tuckman's model - Forming, Storming, Norming, Peforming and Adjourning or Closure (which he added at a later stage).
Each stage has unique characteristics of what will be typical for that team at that stage. At the same time, there are certain supports and activities leaders can provide at that stage to support the team to move into performance.
Finally, it should be noted that this is not always a linear process. Teams can regress, and as the context changes with things such as new team members, they can drop back.
Jennifer Britton, MES, PCC, CPT
Potentials Realized - Leadership and Team Development, Coaching, Retreats
Author of Effective Group Coaching (Wiley, 2010) and From One to Many: Best Practices for Team and Group Coaching (Jossey-Bass, 2013)
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